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Practical Technology of Control Valve

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    Meta Description: Unravel the complexities of control valve types with this in-depth guide, offering insights into their applications, advantages, and selection criteria for various industries. There are two categories of control valves, linear motion and rotary motion control valves.

    Main Components of Control Valves

    Before diving into the types of control valves, let’s explore the essential components of globe type control valves:

    1. Valve Body: The primary structure that houses the internal components and provides a connection to the piping system.
    2. Valve Trim: The internal components responsible for modulating the flow, including the plug, stem, and seat.
    3. Actuator: The device that provides the force to open, close, or position the valve trim as needed.
    4. Positioner: A control device that adjusts the valve’s actuator position based on a control signal.

    These valves regulate flow by moving a closure element in a linear motion. Common linear motion valves include:

    • Globe Valves: Widely used for their precise throttling capabilities, globe valves feature a plug that moves in and out of a seat to control flow.
    • Diaphragm Valves: Featuring a flexible diaphragm that moves up and down, these valves are ideal for handling corrosive, erosive, or abrasive fluids.
    • Pinch Valves: With a pinchable elastomer sleeve, pinch valves are suitable for handling slurries, granular materials, and fibrous suspensions.
    pressure control valves manufacturer in china thinktank
    pneumatic globe type control valves for steam system

    Rotary motion valves modulate flow by rotating a closure element within the valve body. Common rotary motion valves are:

    • Ball Valves: Known for their quick shutoff capabilities, ball valves have a spherical closure element with a flow passage that aligns with the pipeline when open.
    • Butterfly Valves: Featuring a disc that rotates within the flow stream, butterfly valves are lightweight, compact, and suitable for large-diameter pipelines.
    • Plug Valves: These valves use a cylindrical or tapered plug with a flow passage that aligns with the pipeline when open, providing excellent shutoff capabilities.

    Control valves are mechanical devices used in industrial and process control applications to regulate the flow, pressure, temperature, or level of fluids such as liquids, gases, or steam. They work by adjusting the size of the flow passage in response to a signal from a controller or other automation system. The signal can be based on a variety of input variables, such as process measurements or setpoints.

    There are various types of control valves available for use in different applications. Here are some of the most common types of control valves and their respective applications:

    1. Globe valves: These valves are commonly used for precise control of flow and pressure in liquid and gas applications, particularly in HVAC systems, chemical plants, and water treatment facilities.
    2. Butterfly valves: These valves are typically used for on-off or modulating control of flow in large-diameter pipes carrying gases, liquids, or slurries. They are commonly found in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries.
    3. Ball valves: These valves are used for on-off control of flow in a wide range of industries, including oil and gas, power generation, and wastewater treatment. They are particularly suited for applications where a tight shut-off is required.
    4. Diaphragm valves: These valves are used for precise control of flow and pressure in applications involving corrosive or abrasive fluids. They are commonly found in the pharmaceutical, food and beverage, and chemical industries.
    5. Pinch valves: These valves are designed for use in applications involving slurries, liquids containing solids, and other abrasive materials. They are commonly used in mining, chemical processing, and wastewater treatment.
    6. Needle valves: These valves are used for precise control of flow in low-flow applications, particularly in the chemical, petrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries.

    Selecting the appropriate control valve for a specific application requires careful consideration of various factors. Here are some key steps to follow:

    Step 1 Determine the process requirements: This includes identifying the process fluid, flow rate, pressure, temperature and required degree of control.

    Step 2 Identify the valve characteristics: Different types of control valves have different characteristics, such as flow capacity, shut-off capability, and rangeability. Identify the valve characteristics that are most important for the specific application.

    Step 3 Consider the operating conditions: Factors such as the environment, vibration, and noise level should be taken into account when selecting a control valve.

    Step 4 Evaluate the valve materials: The valve materials should be compatible with the process fluid and any other fluids in the system and should be able to withstand the required operating conditions.

    Step 5 Assess the control valve actuator: The actuator provides the force required to move the valve plug or trim and should be selected based on the specific application requirements.

    Step 6 Determine the control signal: The control signal can be based on various input variables, such as process measurements or setpoints. Ensure that the control valve can accommodate the specific control signal requirements.

    Step 7 Consider maintenance and repair: The control valve should be easy to maintain and repair, with readily available spare parts and support from the manufacturer.

    By following these steps, the appropriate control valve can be selected for a specific application, ensuring optimal performance and reliability.

    Common ProblemCausesRisks/ConsequencesPrevention Tips
    Leaking ValvesLoose packing, damaged seals, valve wear and tearProcess inefficiencies, safety hazards, environmental concernsRegular maintenance, replacement of damaged components, use of high-quality seals and packing
    Sticking ValvesDirt or debris buildup, inadequate lubrication, corrosionProcess interruptions, safety hazards, damage to valve and system componentsRegular maintenance, proper lubrication, use of corrosion-resistant materials
    CavitationHigh velocity fluid flow, pressure drops, liquid implosionsDamage to valve components, process inefficiencies, noise and vibrationProper valve sizing, use of specialized valve trims, reduction of pressure drops
    Erosion and CorrosionAbrasive or corrosive process fluids, inadequate valve material selectionValve and system component damage, process inefficiencies, safety hazardsProper valve material selection, use of protective coatings and linings, regular maintenance
    Valve FlutterImproper actuator sizing, high system pressure drops, valve instabilityProcess inefficiencies, safety hazards, damage to valve and system componentsProper actuator sizing, reduction of pressure drops, use of valve positioners
    Actuator FailureMechanical wear and tear, electrical or electronic component failure, inadequate maintenanceProcess interruptions, safety hazards, damage to valve and system componentsRegular maintenance, replacement of damaged components, use of high-quality actuators
    Incorrect Valve SizingImproper calculation of flow rates and system requirements, use of incorrect valve sizing equationsProcess inefficiencies, safety hazards, damage to valve and system componentsProper calculation of flow rates and system requirements, use of correct valve sizing equations, consulting with valve experts

    Here are the step-by-step instructions for properly installing and maintaining control valves to ensure optimal performance and longevity:

    Installation

    1. Confirm that the valve is the correct type and size for the application and that it is compatible with the process fluid and system conditions.
    2. Follow the manufacturer's instructions for installation, which may include specific alignment, bolting, and torqueing procedures.
    3. Verify that the valve is properly supported and anchored to prevent vibration and misalignment.
    4. Confirm that the valve and its components are free from dirt, debris, and other contaminants that could affect performance or damage the valve.
    5. Perform a leak test to ensure that the valve is properly sealed and not leaking process fluid.
    6. Calibrate the valve and its controller to ensure accurate and reliable control.

    Maintenance

    1. Inspect the valve regularly, looking for signs of wear, damage, or leaks.
    2. If any parts are damaged or worn, replace them with high-quality replacements from the manufacturer.
    3. Lubricate the valve according to the manufacturer's instructions using the recommended type and amount of lubricant.
    4. Clean the valve and its components regularly to remove dirt, debris, and other contaminants that could affect performance or damage the valve.
    5. Test the valve regularly to ensure that it is operating properly and within specifications.
    6. Record all maintenance activities for future reference and compliance with industry regulations.
      It is also important to have trained personnel to perform these installation and maintenance tasks to ensure they are done safely and correctly. Additionally, the manufacturer's specific installation and maintenance instructions should be followed, as different types of control valves may have unique requirements. By following these step-by-step instructions, you can ensure that your control valves perform optimally and have a long lifespan.

    Modern control valves have evolved significantly in terms of their design, materials, and capabilities, offering many key features and benefits compared to older models. Here are some of the key features and benefits of modern control valves:

    Key Features

    • Digital and electronic control capabilities that provide accurate and precise control over process variables.
    • Advanced valve trim designs that provide improved flow control, reduce cavitation, and increase the valve's lifespan.
    • Improved material selection for better corrosion and erosion resistance, making them suitable for a wider range of process fluids and conditions.
    • Modular construction that allows for easier installation, maintenance, and replacement of components.
    • Remote monitoring and control capabilities that allow for easier integration with automation and control systems.

    Benefits

    • Improved process efficiency and productivity, resulting in reduced downtime and operating costs.
    • Enhanced safety and environmental protection through accurate and reliable control over process variables.
    • Increased lifespan and reduced maintenance costs due to improved materials and design features.
    • Increased flexibility and adaptability to changing process requirements.
    • Better compatibility with automation and control systems for improved system performance and data analysis.

    Compared to older models, modern control valves offer significant improvements in terms of accuracy, reliability, durability, and performance. They also offer more advanced features and capabilities that allow for better process control and automation. Additionally, modern control valves can be more cost-effective in the long run due to their improved lifespan and reduced maintenance requirements. Overall, the benefits of modern control valves make them a preferred choice for industrial and process control applications

    Control valves play a critical role in regulating process variables such as flow, pressure, and temperature. To perform this task effectively, control valves must integrate with other process control equipment such as sensors and actuators. Here is an overview of how control valves integrate with other process control equipment:

    Sensors

    Sensors are used to measure process variables such as flow, pressure, and temperature. These measurements are used to provide feedback to the control system, which in turn adjusts the control valve to maintain the desired process variable. Control valves can integrate with sensors in several ways, including:

    • Direct connection: Some control valves have sensors built into their design, allowing for direct measurement of the process variable.
    • Remote connection: Sensors can also be connected to the control system through a remote sensing device, which then sends the measurement data to the control system for analysis and control.

    Actuators

    Actuators are used to move the valve plug or disk to adjust the flow rate and maintain the desired process variable. Control valves can integrate with actuators in several ways, including:

    • Direct mounting: Control valves can be mounted directly onto the actuator, forming a single unit.
    • Remote mounting: Control valves can also be remotely mounted from the actuator, connected through a linkage or other transmission mechanism.
    • Electric or pneumatic actuation: Control valves can be actuated using electric or pneumatic power sources, with the type of actuation chosen based on the specific application requirements.
      The integration of control valves with sensors and actuators enables precise and accurate control over process variables, resulting in improved process efficiency, reliability, and safety. Proper installation, calibration, and maintenance of control valves and their associated equipment are critical to ensuring optimal performance and longevity.

    Here's a chart summarizing the troubleshooting steps and best practices for resolving control valve performance issues:

    Troubleshooting StepsBest Practices for Resolution
    Identify the symptomsReview the process variables and identify any changes or abnormalities. Consult with the process operator or maintenance personnel to gather additional information.
    Check the control signalVerify that the input signal is within the desired range. If not, investigate and correct the source of the problem.
    Check the actuatorVerify that the actuator is working properly, providing sufficient force to the valve trim. Inspect the actuator for damage, leaks, or other issues.
    Check the valve trimInspect the valve trim for damage or wear and tear, such as erosion or corrosion. Replace any damaged or worn parts.
    Check the valve bodyInspect the valve body for damage, leaks, or blockages. Replace any damaged or worn parts.
    Check the connectionsVerify that all connections are tight and properly aligned. Realign or tighten connections as necessary.
    Check the environmentConsider external factors such as temperature, pressure, vibration, and fluid properties. Address any issues or changes in the environment that may be affecting the valve's performance.

    Here are some of the most important industry standards and regulations for control valves, and how they impact their use and design:

    Industry Standards

    • ASME B16.34: This standard sets the requirements for valve design, materials, and testing.
    • ISA S75.05: This standard provides guidelines for selecting and sizing control valves based on process variables and performance requirements.
    • API 6D: This standard outlines the requirements for pipeline valves, including control valves used in pipeline applications.
    More valve industry standards can free download by clicking here.

    Regulations

    • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): The NFPA provides guidelines for the installation and use of control valves in fire protection systems.
    • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): OSHA regulations specify safety requirements for the installation, maintenance, and operation of control valves in various industries.
    • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): The EPA regulates the use and emissions of control valves in various industries to ensure environmental protection.

    The impact of these standards and regulations on control valve use and design is significant. They ensure that control valves are designed and manufactured to meet specific performance and safety requirements, and that they are installed, maintained, and operated correctly. Failure to comply with these standards and regulations can result in costly fines, legal liabilities, and safety hazards.

    Control valve manufacturers and users must be aware of these standards and regulations and incorporate them into their valve designs, installation practices, and operational procedures. Compliance with industry standards and regulations not only ensures the safety and environmental protection but also contributes to the overall performance, reliability, and longevity of control valves.

    Control valve technology is constantly evolving, with new innovations and trends emerging that can improve their performance, reliability, and efficiency. Here are some of the latest trends and innovations in control valve technology and how they can benefit your operation:

    Latest Trends and Innovations

    a. Digitalization

    The use of digital technology, such as smart sensors, wireless communication, and cloud computing, is increasing in control valves, enabling remote monitoring, diagnostics, and optimization.

    b. Predictive maintenance

    Predictive maintenance techniques, such as condition monitoring and data analytics, are being integrated into control valves to improve reliability and reduce downtime.

    c. Advanced valve trim designs

    New valve trim designs, such as multi-stage and aerodynamic trims, are being developed to improve flow control, reduce cavitation, and increase valve lifespan.

    d. Materials innovation

    Advanced materials, such as ceramics, composites, and superalloys, are being used in control valves to improve resistance to corrosion, erosion, and wear.

    e. Integrated control systems

    Control valves are increasingly being integrated into control systems, such as distributed control systems (DCS), to provide more accurate and reliable process control.

    Benefits for Your Operation

    a. Increased reliability and uptime

    The use of digital technology and predictive maintenance techniques can help detect potential issues before they become critical, reducing unplanned downtime and improving overall reliability.

    b. Improved process efficiency

    Advanced valve trim designs and materials can improve flow control, reduce energy consumption, and increase process efficiency.

    c. Enhanced safety

    Advanced valve designs, such as anti-cavitation and noise reduction trims, can improve safety by reducing the risk of valve failure and noise hazards.

    d. Improved data analysis and optimization

    Digital technology and integrated control systems can provide more accurate and timely data, allowing for better process analysis, optimization, and decision-making.

    e. Reduced maintenance costs

    Predictive maintenance and improved valve design can reduce maintenance costs by extending valve lifespan and reducing the need for frequent repairs or replacements.
    By staying up to date with the latest trends and innovations in control valve technology, your operation can benefit from improved reliability, efficiency, and safety while reducing costs and improving overall performance.

    Meta Description: Dive into this comprehensive guide to understand everything about control valve applications, their functions, types, industries, and more.

     

    Introduction

    Control valves play a crucial role in regulating the flow, pressure, and temperature of liquids and gases in various industries. With a wide range of applications, control valves are an essential component in many industrial processes. This article aims to cover everything you need to know about control valve applications, helping you understand their function, types, industries they serve, and much more. Whether you are a student, engineer, or a curious individual, this guide provides the knowledge you need to appreciate the significance of control valves in our modern world.

    Functions and Types of Control Valves

    The Role of Control Valves in Industrial Processes

    Control valves serve several critical functions in industrial processes, including:

    • Regulating flow: Adjusting the flow of fluids to maintain a steady rate or maintain specific conditions in a system.
    • Pressure control: Managing the pressure within a system to prevent damage or maintain optimal operating conditions.
    • Temperature control: Adjusting the flow of fluids to regulate the temperature within a system or process.

    Understanding the different types of control valves is essential to their applications. Some popular control valve types include:

    1. Globe valves: Ideal for precise flow control, these valves use a movable disk-type element and stationary ring seat for regulating flow.
    2. Butterfly valves: These valves feature a rotating disk within a pipe to control the flow of fluids, offering a compact design and lower costs.
    3. Ball valves: Known for their durability and high flow capacity, ball valves use a spherical closure element that rotates to control fluid flow.
    4. Diaphragm valves: Suitable for handling corrosive or abrasive materials, diaphragm valves utilize a flexible diaphragm to separate the flow stream from the closure element.

    Control valve applications span across numerous industries, including:

    • Oil and gas: Controlling flow rates, pressure, and temperature in pipelines, refining processes, and chemical injection systems.
    • Chemical processing: Regulating the flow of corrosive, abrasive, or high-temperature fluids in chemical reactions and processes.
    • Power generation: Ensuring the smooth operation of power plants by controlling steam, water, and gas flow in boilers and turbines.
    • Water and wastewater treatment: Managing flow and pressure in pumping stations, distribution networks, and treatment processes.

    Specific Control Valve Applications

    Control Circulating System
    Continuous Circulating System

    While control valves serve multiple industries, some unique applications include:

    • Food and beverage processing: Ensuring hygienic conditions and maintaining product quality by controlling flow and temperature during processing.
    • Pharmaceutical manufacturing: Precise control of fluid flow, pressure, and temperature in drug synthesis, mixing, and packaging processes.
    • Pulp and paper manufacturing: Regulating flow, pressure, and temperature in various stages of pulp and paper production.

    Choosing the Right Control Valve

    When selecting a control valve, consider the following factors:

    1. Flow requirements: Evaluate the flow characteristics needed for the specific application.
    2. Flow Characteristics: Consider the fluid’s properties, such as viscosity, pressure, and temperature, to select a valve that can handle the specific conditions.
    3. Valve size: Choose a valve size that matches the pipeline size and meets the required flow capacity.
    4. Actuator type: Decide between manual, electric, pneumatic, or hydraulic actuation based on the system requirements and available resources. Select an actuator that provides adequate force and meets the desired control requirements.
    5. Material compatibility: Ensure the valve materials are compatible with the fluid being handled to avoid corrosion or other damage.
    6. Regulatory requirements: Adhere to industry-specific regulations and standards to ensure safe and efficient operation.
    7. Noise and vibration: Option for a valve design that minimizes noise and vibration for a safer, more reliable operation.

    Maintaining Control Valves for Optimal Performance

    Proper maintenance of control valves is crucial for ensuring their longevity and efficient operation. Here are some maintenance tips:

    • Regular inspections: Periodically inspect control valves for signs of wear, corrosion, or damage. This will help you identify potential issues before they become critical.
    • Lubrication: Keep moving parts lubricated to reduce friction and prevent wear.
    • Cleaning: Remove dirt, debris, and other contaminants to ensure smooth valve operation and minimize the risk of blockages.
    • Seal replacement: Replace worn or damaged seals to prevent leaks and maintain optimal performance.
    • Calibration: Regularly calibrate control valves to ensure accurate and consistent operation.
    • Documentation: Keep detailed records of maintenance activities, including dates, procedures, and any issues encountered. This will help you track the valve’s performance and plan for future maintenance.

    A control valve typically consists of a valve body, closure element (disk, ball, or butterfly), actuator (manual, electric, pneumatic, or hydraulic), and other accessories such as positioners or limit switches.

    To select the appropriate control valve size, you need to consider factors such as flow rate, pressure drop, and pipe diameter. Consult a control valve sizing chart or consult with a valve manufacturer to ensure proper sizing.

    Yes, control valves can be used to regulate the flow of both liquids and gases. However, the specific control valve type and design will depend on the fluid's properties and application requirements.

    The frequency of control valve inspection and maintenance depends on the operating conditions, type of fluid, and industry-specific requirements. It is generally recommended to perform regular inspections and maintenance as outlined by the valve manufacturer or industry guidelines.

    Common issues with control valves include wear, corrosion, leakage, blockages, and calibration errors. Regular inspection and maintenance can help prevent or address these problems before they impact system performance.

    Control Valve Brief

    The control valve is a key element in the process control loops, the main function of a control valve is to keep some important process parameters within a required operating range, such as inlet/outlet pressure, flow rate, temperature, or level, etc.

    As a final control element to modulating gas, air, steam, water, or other fluid, the control valve will compensate for the load disturbance and maintain the regulated process variable as close as possible to the desired set point.  

    So it is really important to learn terminology, application, technology, and all information of control valves, no matter you are an engineering, sales, end-user, or instrument expert. THINKTANK engineer department made their professional effort and rich experience in the process industry to ensure the right technical information is shared. 

    Material Selection Factors

    The following are list the general materials used for the control valve body. We will consider about 3 main factors that will affect valve materials selected for control valves. Properties, pressure, and temperature. Let’s discuss carefully one by one. 

    Properties Effects

    Mechanical and Physical Properties

    The most responsible valve manufacturers will provide the material mill test certificate for customers, which includes yield strength, hardness, and toughness data in mechanical and physical properties part.

    Wear Properties

    Erosive wear is caused by high-velocity fluid impingement or erosive particles if flow medium.

    Corrosion Properties

    Corrosion properties definitely is an import index for control valves, and how to select the right material resistance to corrosion from the environment or medium fluid is always the main priority for engineers.

    Pressure Effects

    During the harsh conditions, we apparent will face cavitation, flashing, or erosion problems for control valves. A liquid generates cavitation or flash damage for control valves often caused by upstream pressure and differential pressure. A high differential pressure affects the high velocity of flow like steam, or entrained solids which caused the potential for erosion, and the corrosion caused by the passive layer of steel is washed away from the high velocity. 

    Temperature Effects

    Temperature is a critical matter for yield strength under the same pressure. A high temperature of medium will highly reduce the yield strength of the control valve. 

    If the working temperatures exceed the limit temperature of a material, a phenomenon called “creep” will be caused. 

    What is the creep phenomenon for valves?

    A simple phenomenon to show creep deformation, we see that many ball valve seat ring PTFE has creep deformation because it exceeds the limit pressure of the material, and after the temperature is back normal, the sealing can not tight off anymore. Same as control valves, when a high temperature affects the valve body and trim material into creep phenomenon,  and even after temperature and pressure are removed, the steel material still can not goes back to its original dimension. 

    Pressure - Temperature Curve

    temperature and pressure curve
    Temperature-Pressure Curve 150LB
    temperature and pressure curve 300lb
    Temperature-Pressure Curve 300LB

    Common Material for Control Valve

    Here are the control valve material considerations for customers, engineering, or end-users reference. We should pay more attention to our existing applications, selection, and sizing based on our professional knowledge of the industry field.

    Cast Material and its Correspond Service Condition

    Name
    Material Grade
    Service Condition
    High-temperature Carbon Steel
    ASTM A216 Grade WCB
    Non-corrosive fluids such as water, oil, and gases at temperatures range -20°F (-30°C) and +800°F (+425°C)
    Low-temperature Carbon Steel
    ASTM A352 Grade LCB
    Low temperature to -50°F (-46°C). Use excluded above +650°F (+340°C).
    Low-temperature Carbon Steel
    ASTM A352 Grade LC1
    Low temperature to -75°F (-59°C). Use excluded above +650°F (+340°C).
    Low-temperature Carbon Steel
    ASTM A352 Grade LC2
    Low temperature to -100°F (-73°C). Use excluded above +650°F (+340°C).
    3.1/2% Nickel Steel
    ASTM A352 Grade LC3
    Low temperature to -150°F (-101°C). Use excluded above +650°F (+340°C).
    1.1/4% Chrome 1/2% Moly Steel
    ASTM A217 Grade WC6
    Non-corrosive fluids such as water, oil, and gases at temperatures range -20°F (-30°C) and +1100°F (+593°C).
    2.1/4% Chrome
    ASTM A217 Grade C9
    Non-corrosive fluids such as water, oil, and gases at temperatures range -20°F (-30°C) and +1100°F (+593°C).
    5% Chrome 1/2% Moly
    ASTM A217 Grade C5
    Mild corrosive or erosive applications and non-corrosive applications at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +1200°F (+649°C).
    9%Chrome
    1% Moly
    ASTM A217 Grade C12
    Mild corrosive or erosive applications and non-corrosive applications at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +1200°F (+649°C).
    12% Chrome Steel
    ASTM A487 Grade CA6NM
    Corrosive application at temperatures between -20°F (-30°C) and +900°F (+482°C).
    12% Chrome
    ASTM A217 Grade CA15
    Corrosive application at temperatures up to +1300°F (+704°C)
    Stainless steel 316
    ASTM A351 Grade CF8M
    Corrosive or either extremely low or high-temperature non-corrosive services between -450°F (-268°C) and +1200°F (+649°C). Above +800°F (+425°C) specify carbon content of 0.04% or greater.
    Stainless steel 347
    ASTM 351 Grade CF8C
    Mainly for high temperature, corrosive applications between -450°F (-268°C) and +1200°F (+649°C). Above +1000°F (+540°C) specify carbon content of 0.04% or greater.
    Stainless steel 304
    ASTM A351 Grade CF8
    Corrosive or extremely high temperatures non-corrosive services between -450°F (-268°C) and +1200°F (+649°C). Above +800°F (+425°C) specify carbon content of 0.04% or greater.
    Stainless steel 304L
    ASTM A351 Grade CF3
    Corrosive or non-corrosive services to +800F (+425°C).
    Stainless steel 316L
    ASTM A351 Grade CF3M
    Corrosive or non-corrosive services to +800F (+425°C).
    Alloy-20
    ASTM A351 Grade CN7M
    Good resistance to hot sulfuric acid to +800F (+425°C).
    Monel
    ASTM 743 Grade M3-35-1
    Weldable grade. Good resistance to corrosion by all common organic acids and saltwater. Also highly resistant to most alkaline solutions to +750°F (+400°C).
    Hastelloy B
    ASTM A743 Grade N-12M
    Well suited for handling hydrofluoric acid at all concentrations and temperatures. Good resistance to sulphuric and phosphoric acids to +1200°F (+649°C).
    Hastelloy C
    ASTM A743 Grade CW-12M
    Good resistance to span oxidation conditions. Good properties at high temperatures. Good resistance to sulphuric and phosphoric acids to +1200°F (+649°C).
    Inconel
    ASTM A743 Grade CY-40
    Very good for high-temperature service. Good resistance to spangly corrosive media and atmosphere to +800°F (+425°C).
    Bronze
    ASTM B62
    Water, oil, or gas: up to 400°F. Excellent for brine and seawater service.
     

    The Priority Selection of Erosion Resistance Material For Control Valves (Degraded Performance)

    • Ceramic
    • Chrome & Tungsten Carbide
    • Alloy 6 Hard Facing
    • Inconel
    • 416 SS
    • 17-4 PH
    • K Monel
    • 316 SS
    • Hastelloy B & C
    • Monel
    • Alloy 20
    • Bronze

    The Temperature Limit For Body Material of Control Valves

    • Cast Iron: -28 ~ 210°C
    • Ductile Iron: -28 ~ 340°C
    • Carbon Steel (WCB): -28 ~ 425°C
    • Carbon Steel (LCB): -45 ~ 340°C
    • CrMo (WC6): -28 ~ 537°C
    • CrMo (WC9): -28 ~ 565°C
    • CrMo (C5, C12): -28 ~ 648°C
    • 304SS, 316 SS: -253 ~ 815°C
    • Alloy 20: -45 ~ 148°C
    • Aluminum: -198 ~ 204°C
    • Bronze: -198 ~ 287°C
    • Inconel: -198 ~ 648°C
    • Monel: -198 ~ 480°C
    • Hastelloy C: -198 ~ 537°C
    • Titanium: ~ 350°C

    Alloy Elements

    The corrosion resistance, hardness, and toughness of the material are improved by adding alloying elements to the base steel.

    Seat Leakage For Control Valve

    Here is the standard of control valve seat leakage refers to standard ANSI/FCI 70-2-2006 superseding ANSI B16.104.

    Leakage
    Class
    Designation
    Maximum Leakage
    Allowable
    Test MediumTest PressureTesting Procedures Required for Establishing Rating
    CLASS INo test required provided user and supplier so agree
    CLASS II0.5% of rated capacityAir or water at 50-125 F (10-52C)45-60 psig or max. operating differential whichever is lowerPressure applied to valve inlet with outlet open to atmosphere or connected to a low head loss measuring device full normal closing thrust provided by actuator.
    CLASS III0.1% of rated capacityAir or water at 50-125 F (10-52C)45-60 psig or max. operating differential whichever is lowerPressure applied to valve inlet with outlet open to atmosphere or connected to a low head loss measuring device full normal closing thrust provided by actuator.
    CLASS IV0.01% of rated capacityAir or water at 50-125 F (10-52C)45-60 psig or max. operating differential whichever is lowerPressure applied to valve inlet with outlet open to atmosphere or connected to a low head loss measuring device full normal closing thrust provided by actuator.
    CLASS V0.0005 ml per minute of water per inch of port diameter per psi differentialWater at 50-125F (10-52C)Max service pressure drop across valve plug, not to exceed ANSI body rating.Pressure applied to valve inlet after filling entire body cavity and connected piping with water and stroking valve plug closed. Use net specified max actuator thrust, but no more, even if available during test. Allow time for leakage flow to stabilize.
    CLASS VINot to exceed amounts shown in the following table based on port diameter.Air or nitrogen at 50-125 F (10-52C)50 psig or max rated differential pressure across valve plug whichever is lower.Actuator should be adjusted to operating conditions specified with full normal closing thrust applied to valve plug seat. Allow time for leakage flow to stabilize and use suitable measuring device.
    NOMINAL PORT DIAMETER (INCHES)NOMINAL PORT DIAMETER (MILLIMETERS)LEAK RATE (ML PER MINUTE)LEAK RATE (BUBBLES / MINUTE*)
    3760.96
    41021.711
    6152427
    82036.7545
    10254963
    1230511.581

    Body, Trim Material Considerations For Control Valve

    Generally, we will consider selecting the suitable material for the control valve body and trim from 4 factors.

    1. Strength
    2. Special Performance Require
    3. Treating or Coated
    4. Cost

    Here we will list the typical materials for globe type, butterfly type, ball type of control valve. 

    Valve TypeMaterial TypeBody MaterialTrim Material Stem MaterialSeat Material
    Ball TypeCarbon SteelASTM A352 gr. LCC, A216 WCB, A216 WCC316 SS316 SS316 SS
    Stainless Steel316 SS316 SS316 SS316 SS
    Incoloy or InconelUNS N08825 or A350 LF2, A216 WCB with UNS N06625 OverlayUNS N06625UNS N07718UNS N06625
    BronzeBRONZE (UNS C95800)BRONZE (UNS C95800)BRONZE (UNS C95800)BRONZE (UNS C95800)
    Duplex & Super DuplexASTM A890 GR. 4A  (UNS J92205) (Duplex~22% Cr), ASTM A182 GR. F53 (UNS S32750) or F55 (UNS S32760) (Super Duplex~25% Cr)ASTM A182 F51, F53, F55ASTM A276 UNS S31803, S32750, S32760ASTM A182 F51, F53, F55
    6 Moly SSUNS S31254 (6 Moly Stainless Steel)UNS S31254UNS S31254UNS S31254
    Butterfly TypeCast Iron, Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel, Hastelloy, Brass, Nickel Alloys Steel, Titanium Alloys, Nickel Aluminum Bronze, Duplex SteelCast Iron, Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel, Hastelloy, Brass, Nickel Alloys Steel, Titanium Alloys, Nickel Aluminum Bronze, Duplex SteelStainless Steel, Inconel, MonelSoft Seat: PTFE, RTFE, EPDM, Buna-N, Viton, Neoprene
    Metal Seat: Inconel, Stainless Steel
    Globe TypeCarbon Steel, Stainless Steel, Hastelloy, Brass, Nickel Alloys Steel, Titanium Alloys, Nickel Aluminum Bronze, Duplex Steel316SS, 416SS, 17-4PHStainless Steel, Inconel, MonelSoft Seat: PTFE, RTFE, Viton
    Metal Seat: Inconel, Stainless Steel

    Contact Us

    Should you have any questions or requirements about control valves, self-operated pressure regulators, high-performance butterfly valves, or other industrial valves, please feel free to contact us for further communication. 

    The order is just the beginning of the service. We treat every customer seriously and sincerely, try our best to meet the customer’s customized requirements, and provide customers with cost-effective valves as much as possible. Maintaining the interests of our customers is the foundation of our development.

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