All Control valves cause a pressure drop in the fluid as it passes through the valve.
Since pressure is a form of Potential Energy, this means that a certain amount of energy is converted from potential energy into some other form. The higher the Pressure Drop and the greater the flow rate then more energy will be dissipated.
Depending on the type of valve and the trim design this energy can cause significant damage to valve components due to cavitations and high velocities, or can be environmentally unfriendly because of high noise levels produced.
Through the careful choice of valve type and correct trim design, it is possible to minimize the adverse effects of high levels of energy dissipation.